The 2017 National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers (NTE) is the 32nd in an annual series that highlights significant foreign barriers to U.S. exports. This document is a companion piece to the President’s Trade Policy Agenda published by the United States Trade Representative Office (USTR) in March.
This report is based upon information compiled within USTR, the Departments of Commerce and Agriculture, and other U.S. Government agencies, and supplemented with information provided in response to a notice published in the Federal Register, and by members of the private sector trade advisory committees and U.S. Embassies abroad.
This report classifies foreign trade barriers into ten different categories. These categories cover government-imposed measures and policies that restrict, prevent, or impede the international exchange of goods and services. The categories covered include:
- Import policies (e.g., tariffs and other import charges, quantitative restrictions, import licensing, customs barriers, and other market access barriers);
- Sanitary and phytosanitary measures and technical barriers to trade;
- Government procurement (e.g., “buy national” policies and closed bidding);
- Export subsidies (e.g., export financing on preferential terms and agricultural export subsidies that displace U.S. exports in third country markets);
- Lack of intellectual property protection (e.g., inadequate patent, copyright, and trademark regimes and enforcement of intellectual property rights);
- Services barriers (e.g., limits on the range of financial services offered by foreign financial institutions, restrictions on the use of foreign data processing, and barriers to the provision of services by foreign professionals);